INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE MECHANISMS AND THE PLIGHT OF POST ELECTIONS VICTIMS: A CASE OF KENYA (2007 - 2014)

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UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI

 

 

INSTITUTE OF DIPLOMACY AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE MECHANISMS AND THE PLIGHT OF POST ELECTIONS VICTIMS: A CASE OF KENYA (2007 - 2014)

 

 

 

 

 

BY

 

 

FREDD GISHANGA WAKIMANI R/50/63340/2010

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED IN FULFILMENT FOR THE REQUIREMENT OF THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS IN INTERNATIONAL STUDIES

 

 

 

 

 

SEPTEMBER 2015

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DECLARATION

 

 

I FREDD GISHANGA WAKIMANI hereby declare that this research project is my original work and has not been presented to any other university.

 

 

 

 

 

Signed……………………………………………..Date………………………………………

 

 

Fredd Gishanga Wakimani

 

 

 

 

 

 

This project has been submitted for examination with my approval as University Supervisor

 

 

 

 

 

 

Signed………………………………………………..Date……………………………………

 

 

Dr Martin Ouma

 

 

 

 

DEDICATION

 

I dedicate this research project to my Father, Gichuru Kimani, without whom, I would not have started and completed this project.

 

 

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

 

 

 

I would like to express my special gratitude to my supervisor Dr Martin Ouma, as well as the Director of the Institute of Diplomacy and International Studies, Professor Amb Maria Ndzomo, who gave me the opportunity to do this project. I also thank my family and friends who helped me put this work together.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

DEDICATION ..........................................................................................................................iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........................................................................................................iv ABBREVIATIONS ................................................................................................................viii CHAPTER ONE ...................................................................................................................... 11

1.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………11

 

1.1 Background to the Study............................................................................................................. 11

 

1.2 Statement of the Problem ............................................................................................................ 14

 

1.3 Objectives to the Study ............................................................................................................... 17

 

1.4 Literature Review........................................................................................................................ 18

 

1.5 Significance of the Study ............................................................................................................ 27

 

1.6 Theoretical Review ..................................................................................................................... 28

 

1.6.1 Deterrence Theory................................................................................................................ 28

 

1.7 Research Methodology ............................................................................................................... 30

 

1.8  Outline of the Study ................................................................................................................... 32

 

CHAPTER TWO ..................................................................................................................... 34

 

INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE MECHANISMS AND THE VICTIMS RIGHTS TO PARTICIPATE PROCEEDINGS .................................................................................... 34

 

2.0 Introduction................................................................................................................................. 34

 

2.1 Overview of Victim‘s Rights to participate in the Proceedings in ICC ...................................... 34

 

2.2 The Purpose of ICC Victim Participation Scheme ..................................................................... 35

 

2.2.1 Legal Foundations for the Victim Participation Scheme ..................................................... 38

 

2.3 The International Criminal Justice and Participatory Rights of Victims at the Trial Stage ........ 41

 

2.4 The International Criminal Justice and Procedural justice ......................................................... 43

 

2.5 Victim Justice and International Criminal Justice Mechanisms ................................................. 44

 

2.5.1 Victim Justice and International Criminal Justice Mechanisms in Africa ........................... 46

 

2.6 Impact of the ICC on Victim‘s Right to Participate in Kenya .................................................... 48

 

2.7 Direct and indirect ICC Mechanisms and Impacts on Countries That They Operate In............. 50

 

2.7.1 Political Figures and Human Rights Violations ................................................................... 51

 

2.7.2 Political Parties and Prolonged Conflict .............................................................................. 53

 

2.7.3 The ICC Impact on Human Rights ...................................................................................... 54

 

2.7.4 The impact of the ICC mechanism on political stability...................................................... 56

 

2.8 Specific problems in relation to victim participation .................................................................. 57

 

2.7 Chapter Summary ....................................................................................................................... 59

 

CHAPTER THREE ................................................................................................................. 62

 

THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE MECHANISM AND VICTIMS RIGHT TO PROTECTION. ................................................................................................................. 62

 

3.0 Introduction................................................................................................................................. 62

 

3.1 Overview of the International Criminal Justice Mechanism and Victims Protection ................. 62

 

3.2 International Protection of Victims' Rights................................................................................. 65

 

3.4 International Criminal Court and victim‘s Right to Protection................................................... 67

 

3.5 Challenges of victims' rights protection in East Africa............................................................... 68

 

3.5.1 Legal challenges................................................................................................................... 68

 

3.5.2 Cultural and religious challenges ......................................................................................... 69

 

3.5.3 Economic and social challenges .......................................................................................... 69

 

3.6 International Criminal Court and the new model of victims' rights ............................................ 70

 

3.7 Chapter summary ........................................................................................................................ 72

 

4.3 Design and Implementation of collective reparations Mechanisms............................................ 77

 

4.4 Who may claim reparations?................................................................................................... 79

 

4.5 Assessment of damages .............................................................................................................. 81

 

4.6 Links between Two Rights: Participation and Reparations ........................................................ 81

 

CHAPTER 5 ............................................................................................................................ 86

 

5.0 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….86

 

5.1 Status of Kenya's PEV ictims………………………………………………………………………………………………….86

 

5.2 The process of participation protection and reparation in the Kenyan case…………………………..92

 

5.3 Other options for PEV victims in the International Criminal Justice Mechanisms…………………..92

 

5.3.1 Universal Jurisdiction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………93

 

5.3.2. Private Prosecutions in local courts…………………………………………………………………………………..96

 

5.3.3 Regional Mechanisms ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….97

 

5.4 Chapter Summary ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..100

 

CHAPTER 6 .......................................................................................................................... 102

 

SUMMARY AND

CONCLUSIONS………………………………………………………………………………….…102

 

6.0 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..102

 

6.1 Summary …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………102

 

6.1.1 International Criminal Justice Mechanisms and the PEV victims right to participation ..……….102

 

6.1.2 The International Criminal Justice Mechanisms and the  PEV victims right to Protection………102

 

6.1.3 The International Criminal Justice Mechanisms and the PEV victims right to Reparation…..…103

 

6.2 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..103

 

6.3 Recommendations…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………104

 

 

ABBREVIATIONS ACHPR:        African Commission on Human and Peoples Rights AU:                African Union

CAR:              Central African Republic

 

 

CAT:              Convention Against torture

 

 

CIPEV:          Commission of Inquiry Into Post-Election Violence

 

 

CLR:              Common Legal Representative

 

 

DDR:              Demobilization and Disarmament and Re-integration Program

 

 

DRC:              Democratic Republic of Congo EAC:              East African Community EACJ:            East African Court of Justice

EALA:           East African Legislative Assembly

 

 

ECOWAS:    Economic Community for West African States

 

 

EU:                 European Union

 

 

ICC:               International Criminal Court

 

 

ICTR:            International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda ICTY:            International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia NGOs:            Non Governmental organisations

 

OAU:             Organization of African Unity OPCV:           Office of Public Counsel for Victims PEV:              Post-Election Violence

OTP:              Office of The Prosecutor

 

 

SALW:          Small Arms Light Weapons Program

 

 

UN:                United Nations

 

 

VPRS:            Victims Participation and Reparation Section

 

 

VTF:              Victims trust fund

 

 

VWU:             Victims Witness Unit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

 

Justice for victims targeted in Post-Election Violence is of utmost importance if impunity is to be tamed and eventually eliminated. The right to participation, protection and reparations for victims is of paramount importance in the process of seeking justice. The international criminal justice mechanisms must thus conform to these three requirements if their presence is  to  be  justified.  The  study  therefore  analyses  these  three  key  areas  of  participation, protection and reparation in light of the Kenyan case after the post-election violence of

2007/08. The study‘s objective was to analyse if international criminal justice mechanisms including to a large extent the International Criminal Court, actually contribute to delivery of justice at the local or domestic plane or if they were superfluous and of no effect to the victim on the ground. By looking at international justice mechanisms and their impact on the victims from similar scenarios globally and contrasting them with the Kenyan case, the study gauged the effectiveness  of the  mechanisms  vis  a vis  the  plight  of the  victims.  By the use of quantitative and qualitative methods, through interviews and analysis of numerous reports on the issue, the study was able to deduce that international justice mechanisms are not sufficiently effective in addressing the plight of the victims‘ whose human rights were violated.. Similarly in the international realm, the study deduced that political factors are also at play in affecting the victims‘ rights. According to the study‘s findings, the  international justice mechanisms need to be enhanced in order to effectively address the plight of the victims.

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