Human trafficking is a transnational organised crime which violates the human rights of the victims and constitutes a threat to the security along the northern corridor and the destination countries of the victims. It is a complex phenomenon which can be assessed by analysing how social policies, neighbour policies, or economic development policies influence human trafficking. This study was guided by the following objectives; to examine the cause and prevalence of human trafficking along the northern corridor from Ethiopia to South Africa through Kenya, to find out the effects of human trafficking along the northern corridor from Ethiopia to South Africa through Kenya, to examine the mitigation strategies against human trafficking along the northern corridorfrom Ethiopia to South Africa through Kenya. The study was guided by the rational choice theory. The study adopted cross-sectional descriptive research design. The study relied on secondary data that was collected from reports, journals and periodicals as well as government publications. The collected data was analysed thematically in line with the research objectives. The main findings of the study showed that human trafficking is a multi-dimensional threat, depriving people of their human rights and freedoms, risking global health, promoting social breakdown, inhibiting development by depriving countries of their human capital, and helping fuel the growth of organized crime. The main causes of human trafficking were identified to be socio-economic and culture factors, sex trade, weak immigration and globalization. The study recommends that there is need for prosecution of human traffickers to be fostered within the region. The security operatives, especially the police, immigration and custom service need to be optimally staffed, properly equipped and professionally trained. Governments should strengthen bilateral agreements to garner international cooperation and also enter into new ones towards tackling the problems of human trafficking.