Access to adequate food is a basic prerequisite for a healthy population. To achieve, food security, great efforts are made and traditional practices are not enough to achieve. Thus, application of science and technology is necessary to address the challenge of food insecurity. This study sought to examine the effects of science and technology on the attainment of sustainable food security in Africa, by using Kenya as a case. The study specifically focused on the role that science and technology has played in attaining global food security and the challenges that have been encountered in the process. Key objectives of the study are to; study the role of science and technology in achieving adequate food security; evaluate the implementation of science and technology in relation to meet national food security needs in Kenya; examine key challenges that Kenya has been facing to attain and sustain adequate food security needs of the people. The study adopted a descriptive design by surveying a wide range of academic literature drawn from library and internet research. The study concluded that to achieve sustainable food security, Kenya and Africa in general must lay a solid foundation for application of science and technology by investing more on education, research and development (R&D) as well as initiate public policies aimed at sharing adaptive and practical innovations and breakthroughs in science, technology and sustainability of food in the country andAfrican continent in general. Furthermore, Africagenerally and Kenya in particular as a matter of urgency should invest on agricultural development.